INDIGOFERA ASPALATHOIDES PDF

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract The present study was undertaken to test the chemopreventive effects of one herbal medicinal plant, Indigofera aspalathoides, on chemically induced carcinogenesis in rats. A well-known polyaromatic hydrocarbon, namely, methylcholanthrene, which is a known carcinogenic substance, was used to induce fibrosarcoma in Wistar strain of male albino rats. Fibrosarcoma rats were treated with aqueous extracts of Indigofera aspalathoides. The rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of six animals. Group I served as normal control, Group II served as fibrosarcoma-induced animals, Group III were fibrosarcoma-bearing animals treated with aqueous extracts of Indigofera aspalathoides, and Group IV animals, which were normal healthy animals treated with Indigofera aspalathoides aqueous extract, served as drug control set.

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract The present study was undertaken to test the chemopreventive effects of one herbal medicinal plant, Indigofera aspalathoides, on chemically induced carcinogenesis in rats.

A well-known polyaromatic hydrocarbon, namely, methylcholanthrene, which is a known carcinogenic substance, was used to induce fibrosarcoma in Wistar strain of male albino rats.

Fibrosarcoma rats were treated with aqueous extracts of Indigofera aspalathoides. The rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of six animals. Group I served as normal control, Group II served as fibrosarcoma-induced animals, Group III were fibrosarcoma-bearing animals treated with aqueous extracts of Indigofera aspalathoides, and Group IV animals, which were normal healthy animals treated with Indigofera aspalathoides aqueous extract, served as drug control set.

The fibrosarcoma was proved by pathological examinations. The activity levels of nucleic acids such as total DNA and RNA and hexose, hexosamine, and sialic acid in liver and kidney of treated rats were used to monitor the chemopreventive role of the plant extract. The observed increase in the levels of DNA, RNA, hexose, hexosamine, and sialic acid in liver and kidney tissues of fibrosarcoma-bearing animals reached near normal state after the treatment with aqueous extracts of Indigofera aspalathoides, suggesting that Indigofera aspalathoides does have a chemotherapeutic role.

Introduction The disease cancer will become the leading cause of mortality among human population [ 1 ]. Chemical carcinogenesis due to a number of agents is a proven fact. Consistent evidence shows carcinogenesis to be caused by certain chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH like methylcholanthrene or 3-methylcholanthrene. They are readily detected in the air we breathe or the tobacco that we smoke [ 3 ]. The specific type of cancer produced varies with the root of administration and include, tumors of the skin, soft tissues, and breast.

PAHs are metabolized by cytochrome Pdependent mixed-function oxidases to give electrophilic epoxides. The epoxides either get detoxified or bind covalently to the DNA. The resultant abnormal DNA induces abnormal cell division and produce malignancy [ 3 ]. Carcinogenesis is a multistage disease process. The events leading to cancer is sequential, involving both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

At the molecular level, cancer is caused by abnormal gene expression. This occurs through a number of mechanisms including a direct damage to DNA leading to abnormal transcription of genome.

Majority of chemical carcinogens cause mutations presumably in critical genes and alter the cell growth and differentiation through epigenetic factors. The development of fully malignant tumor is to involve the activation of altered expression of proto-oncogenes to oncogenes and the loss or inactivation of tumor suppression gene, the function of which is to control normal cellular activity [ 4 ].

In the present study, MCA was used as a fibrosarcoma inducing agent in rats. Fibrosarcoma is a tumor composed of collagen fibers forming mesenchymal cells of fibroblasts and they arise from subcutaneous fibrous tissues [ 5 ]. The tumor is a large, firm, and pale mass without any capsule and infiltrates into the surrounding tissues.

The tumor occurs near fibrous tissues and mostly in the region of thigh and knee. Most patients present with a solitary palpable mass ranging from 3 to 8 cm in the greatest dimension. The peak age for fibrosarcoma incidence is 30 to 55 years. Most studies have reported a slightly higher incidence of this tumor in men than in women [ 6 ].

Fibrosarcomas are assigned grades, from 1 to 3, the higher grade sarcomas grade 2 or 3 pose a significant threat and present problems in local control [ 7 ].

Histological grading of fibrosarcoma is mainly based on the degree of cellularity, degree of cellular differentiation, number of mitotic figures, the amount of collagen produced by the tumor cells, and the extent of necrosis. It is a fact that both surgery and radiotherapy may fail to cure cancer chiefly because the tumors might have already decimated to other parts of the body. For this reason, chemotherapy is considered as one of the best alternative. Chemotherapy, although being a major treatment modality used in the control of advanced stages of malignancies, exhibits severe toxicity on normal tissues [ 8 ].

Plant products which have antioxidant and anticancer properties could be considered as good chemopreventive agents.

Recent researches revolve around the urgency to evolve suitable chemotherapy with less or no toxic side effects. Plants have played a major role in treatment of various diseases of animals and humans since time immemorial. A large number of active principles from traditional medicinal plants have been reported to have chemopreventive properties [ 10 ]. Most of the studies on chemoprevention are based on individual chemicals with well-defined mechanisms.

Since carcinogenesis is a multifactorial and multistage process, the individual active compounds or active principles may not always be effective to control all the stages and, therefore, it is of interest to investigate the chemopreventive effect of crude extracts of plants which might control the different stages of cancer etiology as compounds like saponins, tannins, steroids, alkaloids present therein might act holistically to effect a proper cure for cancer.

The plant Indigofera aspalathoides is used as a potent drug for many diseases in the traditional Indian system. This plant belongs to the family Papilionaceae and it is commonly known as Sivanar Vembu or Iraivanar Vembu in Tamil language of India. The leaves, flowers, and tender shoots are said to be cooling and demulcent [ 11 ].

This plant is used for the treatment of leprosy, syphilis, and various skin diseases [ 12 ]. The plant mainly contains saponins, tannins, steroids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and reducing sugars. The present study was aimed at finding out the curative role of the aqueous extract of Indigofera aspalathoides on MCA-induced fibrosarcoma in rats.

Some reports of its anticancer and antioxidant properties are already been studied by us [ 13 — 16 ]. Materials and Methods 2.

Preparation of Plant Extract 1 kg. The extract was filtered and concentrated on a water bath. The inorganic material was precipitated and filtered off. The filtrate was again concentrated in a China dish and dried in vacuum.

This was stored in refrigerator for further and future use. In case of the death, the limit test was terminated and main test was conducted. If the animal survived, four additional animals were dosed sequentially so that five animals could be tested. However, if three animals died, the limit test was terminated and the main test was performed. If an animal died unexpectedly late in the study and there were other survivors, it was appropriate to stop dosing and observing all animals to see if other animals also die during a similar observation period.

AEIA was found to be safe even at a higher concentration and, based on this, the dose for the chemopreventive activity was chosen. The animals were fed with normal pellet diet rat chew and water ad libitum.

Sample Collection The animals were sacrificed by cervical decapitation at the end of the experimental period and the liver and kidney were dissected out and known weight of liver and kidney were homogenized in 0. Animals were starved overnight before sacrifice. Sigma Chemicals, USA. Tumors which appeared in about 4 weeks after implantation were highly localized and were maintained by serial transplantation. The tumor was minced and suspended in normal saline. The transplanted tumor became palpable in 4—6 days time.

Histopathological Analysis The liver and kidney of control and experimental animals were used for histopathological analysis.

From the figures, it is clear that the treatment of this drug has restored the liver and kidney architecture.

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Moogura Group I served as normal control, Group II served as fibrosarcoma-induced animals, Group III were fibrosarcoma-bearing animals treated with aqueous extracts of Indigofera aspalathoidesand Group IV animals, which were normal healthy animals treated with Indigofera aspalathoides aqueous extract, served as drug control set. Indigofera aspalathoides After the treatment with I. The leaf is trifoliate, pale green, obanceolate, digitate, sessile and crowded on the young branches, stipules minute. The portal will be unavailable all day on Sunday 23rd Dec for maintenance. It has been suggested that compounds that possess inhibitory effects on cell proliferation and as antioxidants, are considered to be good chemo preventive agents.

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Indigofera aspalathoides

The methanol extract effectively inhibits all the test pathogen 9. Various extracts of leaves and roots of Indigofera aspalathoides were tested against 13 microbial species including 8 bacteria and 5 molds as test organisms by disc agar method. The petroleum ether, chloroform and acetone leaf and root extracts of this plant showed antibacterial activity against B. However, the methanol root extract showed maximum inhibition zone against P. Root extracts showed superior antibacterial and antifungal activity

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