He started his artistic training in when he became a private student of Johann Gottfried Quistorp in Greifswald. In he entered the Academy of Copenhagen where he formed his style copying antique sculptures. These artists were exponents of the Sturm und Drang movement which was characterized by individual subjectivity and heightened emotionality. Friedrich settled in Dresden, where he worked in printmaking with etchings and layouts for woodcuts, later turning to watercolours, ink and sepias. From he made frequent trips to the Baltic coast and various German mountains, drawing inspiration for a number of landscape paintings which soon became his favourite subject. In he was appointed a member of the Berlin Academy.
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By the end of the three-day Allied bombing attack, the German city had been leveled and tens of thousands were dead. German guards moved them two stories down into a meat locker. The punishing, three-day Allied bombing attack on Dresden from February 13 to 15 in the final months of World War II became among the most controversial Allied actions of the war.
The bomber raid dropped some 2, tons of explosives and incendiaries and decimated the German city. The Allied assault came a less than a month after some 19, U. In an effort to force a surrender, the Dresden bombing was intended to terrorize the civilian population locally and nationwide. It certainly had that effect. The U. Eighth Air Force attacked the next day with another tons of bombs and launched yet another raid with bombers on February With the German Luftwaffe destroyed and anti-aircraft defenses in shambles, the Royal Air Force lost only six planes.
On the ground, however, thousands of small fires merged into a powerful firestorm that created such powerful winds that it sucked oxygen, fuel, broken structures, and people into its flames.
Irving later earned notoriety—and a criminal conviction —as a holocaust denier. In part to prevent right-wing ideologues from exploiting wide-spread speculations about the death toll, the city of Dresden set up an historical commission in to produce more precise data with historical, military, forensic and archeological research.
In , it published a revised estimate of 22, to 25, dead. Most German cities had been flattened by , and many left higher proportionate death rates and degrees of destruction. The bombing of Hamburg in July generated the first large firestorm and killed more than 30, civilians.
And while the German Blitz over England became the subject of many books and movies, the Luftwaffen raids on Eastern European cities such as Belgrade more than 17, dead or Warsaw up to 25, dead were far more deadly—to say nothing of non-nuclear city bombings in Japan.
On the ground, however, the scale of death and devastation seemed beyond compare to witnesses like Vonnegut. In the background is the dome of the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts.
Many Germans perceived a particular injustice in the late bombing of Dresden in February in —a sentiment that gained some international traction in the postwar years. Dresden was a densely crowded city in the winter of , filled with refugees fleeing the advancing Red Army. For most of them, the end of the war looked near and inevitable and a full-scale attack unnecessary. So while the Dresden bombing was a terror campaign that dealt a devastating assault on civilians and cultural sites, it was part of a war in which such tactics had been widely—and grimly—deployed.
Less than three months later, and eight days after Adolf Hitler committed suicide in his underground bunker, the German High Command signed the unconditional surrender of all German forces. Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you.
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کتاب Lese-Novelas David Dresden داستان آلمانی