He received his degree from Munich University in in philosophy, although he was already on a course to study the newly minted discipline of art history. It is considered now to be one of the founding texts of the emerging discipline of art history, although it was barely noted when it was published. He is credited with having introduced the teaching method of using twin parallel projectors in the delivery of art history lectures, so that images could be compared when magic lanterns became less dangerous. Sir Ernst Gombrich recalled being inspired by him, as well as Erwin Panofsky. These were: From linear draughtsmanship, plastic, relating to contour in projected ideation of objects to painterly malerisch: tactile, observing patches or systems of relative light and of non-local colour within shade, making shadow and light integral, and allowing them to replace or supersede the dominance of contours as fixed boundaries. From closed tectonic form to open a-tectonic form The closed or tectonic form is the composition which is a self-contained entity which everywhere points back to itself, the typical form of ceremonial style as the revelation of law, generally within predominantly vertical and horizontal oppositions; the open or atectonic form compresses energies and angles or lines of motion which everywhere reach out beyond the composition, and override the horizontal and vertical structure, though naturally bound together by hidden rules which allow the composition to be self-contained.
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It is important to remember, though, that the pairs of categories he proposes are comparative, not absolute. The division into categories is only for the purposes of analysis. The boundaries of each solid element whether human or inanimate are definite and clear; each figure is evenly illuminated, and stands out boldly like a piece of sculpture In contrast, in a painterly painting, the figures are not evenly illuminated but are fused together, seen in a strong light which comes from one direction and reveals some things while it obscures others.
Contours are lost in shadow, swift brush-strokes bind separate parts together rather than isolating them from one another. Some figures are barely visible. Planar and Recessional Planar means that the elements of the painting are arranged on a series of planes parallel to the picture plane. In the Raphael, for example, the first plane is given by the small step in front.
The saint on the left is in line with the front edge of the next step back, while beyond is the plane of the rear of the throne. All these planes are parallel. The figures move back from the front plane, starting with the man on the right, who directs our attention towards the woman on the left, and towards Christ, a little further back. The other figures are recessed along diagonals behind.
Closed Form and Open Form In the closed form of the Renaissance painting, all the figures are balanced within the frame of the picture. The composition is based on verticals and horizontals that echo the form of the frame and its delimiting function. The saints at the sides close off the picture with strong vertical accents, reinforced by the vertical accent of the throne in the centre.
Horizontal accents are provided by the steps of the throne and the horizontal canopy over the throne. The picture is self-contained. The closed form conveys an impression of stability and balance and there is a tendency towards a symmetrical arrangement though this, of course, is not rigid.
In the open form of the Baroque painting vigorous diagonals contrast with the verticals and horizontals of the frame. Diagonal lines not only play on the surface of the picture, but move back into depth. Figures are not simply contained within the frame, but are cut off by it at the sides. There is a feeling of space beyond the edges of the picture. The composition is dynamic rather than static; it suggests movement and is full of momentary effects, as opposed to the tranquil repose of the Renaissance painting.
Multiplicity and Unity A pair a terms which is most obviously relative, for all great works are unified in one way or another. Colours blend and mingle, and their appearance depends largely on how the light strikes them. The even, diffused light in the Renaissance painting helps to isolate elements so that a multiplicity of independent units can be balanced against one another.
More or less self-explanatory, given the above categories. While for Raphael the ideal was perfect clarity in the depiction of subject matter, for Guercino this was less important and the explicitness of subject is not the sole aim.
Whereas for Raphael, composition, light, and colour served merely to define form, for Guercino these same elements are given a life of their own. Similarly in Baroque painting, strong unidirectional light accentuates the unity arising from the continuous character of the diagonals cutting across the surface and back into depth, blends the forms, moderates the local colours, and produces relative clarity of representation.
Principles of Art History
Zulkirisar It is considered now to be one of the founding texts of the emerging discipline of art history, although it was barely noted when it was published. In the closed form of the Renaissance painting, all the figures are balanced within the frame of the picture. Principles of Art History Planar means that the elements of the painting are arranged on a series of planes parallel to the picture plane. There is a feeling of space beyond the edges of the picture.