Data Collection Notes LISTING After the selection of the clusters throughout the 11 administrative areas, a listing operation in the selected clusters starting from the month of October was conducted. For this purpose, training was conducted for 46 listers who had been recruited from all the regions to do the listing of households and delineation of EAs. A manual that described the listing procedure was prepared as a guideline and the training was conducted using classroom demonstrations and field practices. The listing was performed by organizing the listers into teams, with two listers per team. Seven field coordinators were also assigned from the head office to perform quality checks and handle all the administrative and financial issues of the listing staff. Supervision was carried out by the cartographic division of PHCCO to assess the quality of the field operation and the level of the accuracy of the GPS readings.
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Data Collection Notes LISTING After the selection of the clusters throughout the 11 administrative areas, a listing operation in the selected clusters starting from the month of October was conducted. For this purpose, training was conducted for 46 listers who had been recruited from all the regions to do the listing of households and delineation of EAs. A manual that described the listing procedure was prepared as a guideline and the training was conducted using classroom demonstrations and field practices.
The listing was performed by organizing the listers into teams, with two listers per team. Seven field coordinators were also assigned from the head office to perform quality checks and handle all the administrative and financial issues of the listing staff. Supervision was carried out by the cartographic division of PHCCO to assess the quality of the field operation and the level of the accuracy of the GPS readings. Though the listing operation was aimed to be completed in three months, it was extended up to five months in some parts of the country, primarily because of a shortage of vehicles.
PRETEST Prior to the start of the fieldwork, the questionnaires were pretested in all the three local languages, to make sure that the questions were clear and could be understood by the respondents. In order to conduct the pilot survey, 12 interviewers were recruited from the Amhara, Oromiya and Tigray regions. In addition to the new recruits, 14 senior staff members of PHCCO were trained for a period of three weeks to conduct the pilot fieldwork and serve as trainers for the main fieldwork.
The pilot training which was conducted from January 24 to February 11, , included training in blood sample collection for the anaemia and HIV testing. The pilot survey was conducted from February in four selected sites.
The areas selected for the pretest were urban Addis Ababa and both urban and rural parts of Mekele, Ambo and Debre Birhan areas. Accommodation was arranged for the trainees as well as the trainers at a training site in Addis Ababa.
The training of interviewers, editors and supervisors was conducted from March 14 to April 20, The Amharic questionnaires were used during the training, while the Tigrigna and Oromiffa versions were simultaneously checked against the Amharic questionnaires to ensure accurate translation. In addition to classroom training, trainees did several days of field practice to gain more experience on interviewing in the three local languages and fieldwork logistics. A total of trainees were trained in five classrooms.
On the basis of the scores on the exam and overall performances in the classroom, trainees were selected to participate in the main fieldwork. From the group 30 of the best male trainees were selected as supervisors and 30 of the best female interviewers were identified as field editors. The remaining trainees were selected to be interviewers. The trainees not selected to participate in the fieldwork were kept as reserve. Thirty male interviewers and 30 female interviewers were selected to attend the biomarker training.
In addition, the 30 field editors also attended the training, as a backup to the biomarker interviewers. Thirteen regional laboratory technicians who were recruited from Private Laboratory Consortium Unit PLCU to serve as regional coordinators for the HIV testing were also trained, of whom 11 were eventually selected to supervise the blood collection.
During the one-week biomarker training, six experienced experts from ORC Macro and EHNRI provided theoretical training followed by practical classroom demonstrations of the techniques for testing of haemoglobin and collection of dried blood spots from a finger prick for HIV testing.
In addition to the classroom training, trainees did several days of field practice to gain more experience on blood collection. A total of 30 data collection teams, each composed of four female interviewers, two male interviewers, one female editor, and a male team supervisor, were organized for the main fiedwork. Furthermore, the 30 field teams were organized into 11 regional groups, each headed by an experienced senior staff of PHCCO and accompanied by a regional coordinator from PLCU.
The survey was fielded from April 27 to August 30, Data quality was also monitored through field check tables generated from completed clusters simultaneously data entered and produced during the fieldwork. Five senior experts from PHCCO were permanently assigned to monitor the fieldwork throughout the survey period by moving from one region to another. Continuous communication was maintained between the field staff and the headquarters through cell phones.
Fieldwork was successfully completed in of the clusters, with the 5 clusters not covered primarily due to reasons of inaccessibility. In one cluster in the Gambela Region, households refused to be finger-pricked for cultural and traditional reasons. Questionnaires Questionnaires In order to adapt the standard DHS core questionnaires to the specific socio-cultural settings and needs in Ethiopia, its contents were revised through a technical committee composed of senior and experienced demographers of PHCCO.
A one-day workshop was organized on November 22, at the Ghion Hotel in Addis Ababa to discuss the contents of the questionnaire. Over 50 participants attended the national workshop and their comments and suggestions collected.
Based on these comments, further revisions were made on the contents of the questionnaires. The questionnaires were finalized in English and translated into the three main local languages: Amharic, Oromiffa and Tigrigna. The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors in the selected households. Some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household.
The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women and men who were eligible for the individual interview. Completed questionnaires were returned periodically from the field to the data processing department at the PHCCO headquarters. After the actual entry of the data began, additional data entry operators were recruited and entry was performed in two shifts. A total of 22 data entry operators and 4 office editors carried out data entry and primary office editing activities.
Each of the questionnaires was keyed twice by two separate entry clerks. Consistency checks were made and entry errors were manually checked by going back to the questionnaires.
A secondary editing program was then run on the data to indicate questions that showed inconsistency and these were also corrected by secondary editors.
The data entry for the clusters that started on 9 May was completed on 24 September Data Appraisal Estimates of Sampling Error The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: 1 nonsampling errors, and 2 sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors.
Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey EDHS to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically. Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically.
The sample of respondents selected in the EDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size.
Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results. A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic mean, percentage, etc.
The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors.
However, the EDHS sample is the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. This module used the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions.
The Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates. Data Appraisal.
ETHIOPIA 2005 DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY (DHS) DATA
In the Urban Governorates, Lower Egypt, and Upper Egypt, the EDHS design allowed for governorate-level estimates of most of the key variables, with the exception of the fertility and mortality rates. In the Frontier Governorates, the sample size was not sufficiently large to provide separate estimates for the individual governorates. To meet the survey objectives, the number of households selected in the EDHS sample from each governorate was not proportional to the size of the population in the governorate. As a result, the EDHS sample is not self-weighting at the national level, and weights have to be applied to the data to obtain the national-level estimates presented in this report.
Demographic and Health Survey 2005
In general, a DHS sample is stratified, clustered and selected in two stages. In the EDHS a representative sample of approximately 14, households from clusters was selected. The sample was selected in two stages. In the first stage, clusters urban and rural were selected from the list of enumeration areas EA from the Population and Housing Census sample frame. In the census frame, each of the 11 administrative areas is subdivided into zones and each zone into weredas. In addition to these administrative units, each wereda was subdivided into convenient areas called census EAs. Each EA was either totally urban or rural and the EAs were grouped by administrative wereda.