ETHICS.DISCOVERING RIGHT AND WRONG POJMAN PDF

INDEX For more information on an alternate version of this book which contains classic and contemporary philosophical reading selections in the back of the book, please contact your Cengage Learning representative. Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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INDEX For more information on an alternate version of this book which contains classic and contemporary philosophical reading selections in the back of the book, please contact your Cengage Learning representative. Copyright Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Morality is not purely an invention, as Mackie suggests, but it also involves a discovery. We may compare morality to the development of the wheel. Both are creations based on discoverable features. The wheel was invented to facilitate the transportation of objects with minimal friction. The construction of a wheel adheres to the laws of physics to bring about efficient motion.

Not just anything could function as a good wheel. A rectangular or triangular wheel would be inefficient, as would one made out of sand or bird feathers or heavy stones. Analogously, morality has been constructed to serve human needs and desires, for example, the need to survive and the desires to prosper and be happy. The ideal morality should serve as the blueprint for individual happiness and social harmony. Human beings have used their best minds over millennia to discover those principles that best serve to promote individual and social well-being.

Just as the construction of the wheel is dependent on the laws of physics, so the construction of morality has been dependent on human nature, on discoverable features of our being. It is in this spirit of moral discovery that Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong surveys the main theories of moral philosophy today. The philosophical community experienced a great loss in with the death of Louis Pojman, the original author of this book, who succumbed to his battle with cancer. His voluminous writings—over 30 books and articles— have been uniformly praised for their high level of scholarship and insight, and countless philosophy students and teachers have benefited from them see www.

In an earlier preface, Louis expresses his enthusiasm for his subject and his commitment to his reader: I have written this book in the spirit of a quest for truth and understanding, hoping to excite you about the value of ethics.

It is a subject that I love, for it is about how we are to live, about the best kind of life. I hope that you will come to share my enthusiasm for the subject and develop your own ideas in the process. Over the years, new editions of this book have appeared in response to the continually evolving needs of college instructors and students.

Throughout these changes, however, the book has focused on the central issues of ethical theory, which in this edition include chapters on the following 12 subjects, beginning with the more theoretical issues of 1 what ethics is most generally, 2 ethical relativism, 3 moral objectivism, 4 moral value, 5 social contract theory and the motive to be moral, and 6 egoism and altruism.

The book next focuses on the influential normative theories of 7 utilitiarianism, 8 Kantianism and deontology, and 9 virtue theory. This newly revised seventh edition attempts to reflect the spirit of change that governed previous editions. As with most text book revisions, the inclusion of new material in this edition required the deletion of a comparable amount of previously existing material.

Many of the changes in this edition were suggested by previous book users, both faculty and students, for which I am very grateful. The students in my ethical theory classes at the University of Copyright Cengage Learning. Military Academy at West Point for the past twenty years have served as a challenging sounding board for many of my arguments.

Ronald F. Stanlick, University of Central Florida; R. White, Marquette University reviewed the manuscript for an earlier edition and provided guidance in revising this latest edition. I thank Joann Kozyrev, Ian Lague, and the rest of the talented editorial staff at Cengage for their expertise and good nature throughout the production of this new edition.

Thanks also to the dozens of ethics instructors who completed an online survey about the text and made valuable suggestions for improvement. In all the world and in all of life there is nothing more important to determine than what is right. Whatever the matter which lies before us calling for consideration, whatever the question asked us or the problem to be solved, there is some settlement of it which will meet the situation and is to be sought.

Wherever there is a decision to be made or any deliberation is in point, there is a right determination of the matter in hand which is to be found and adhered to, and other possible commitments which would be wrong and are to be avoided.

A young woman, Kitty Genovese, was brutally stabbed in her own neighborhood late at night during three separate attacks while thirty-eight respectable, law-abiding citizens watched or listened. During the thirty-five minute struggle, her assailant beat her, stabbed her, left her, and then returned to attack her two more times until she died. Finally, a seventyyear-old woman called the police. It took them just two minutes to arrive, but by that time Genovese was already dead.

Only one other woman came out to testify before the ambulance showed up an hour later. Then residents from the whole neighborhood poured out of their apartments. What should these respectable citizens have done? Are such acts of omission morally blameworthy?

Is the Genovese murder an atypical situation, or does it represent a disturbing trend? This story also raises important questions about the general notion of morality. What is the nature of morality, and why do we need it? What is the Good, and how will we know it? Is it in our interest to be moral? What is the relationship between morality and religion? What is the relationship between morality and law?

What is the relationship between morality and etiquette? These are some of the questions that we explore in this book. We want to understand the foundation and structure of morality. We want to know how we should live. It is an enterprise that begins with wonder at the marvels and mysteries of the world; that pursues a rational investigation of those marvels and mysteries, seeking wisdom and truth; and that results in a life lived in passionate moral and intellectual integrity.

It aims at a clear, critical, comprehensive conception of reality. The main characteristic of philosophy is rational argument. Philosophers clarify concepts and analyze and test propositions and beliefs, but their major task is to analyze and construct arguments. Philosophical reasoning is closely allied with scientific reasoning, in that both build hypotheses and look for evidence to test those hypotheses with the hope of coming closer to the truth.

However, scientific experiments take place in laboratories and have testing procedures through which to record objective or empirically verifiable results. The laboratory of the philosopher is the domain of ideas. It takes place in the mind, where imaginative thought experiments occur.

It takes place in the study room, where ideas are written down and examined. It also takes place wherever conversation or debate about the perennial questions arises, where thesis and counterexample and counterthesis are considered.

The study of ethics within philosophy contains its own subdivisions, and dividing up the territory of ethics is a tricky matter. Often these terms are used interchangeably—as will be the case in this book. The key divisions within the study of ethics are 1 descriptive morality, 2 moral philosophy ethical theory , and 3 applied ethics. First, descriptive morality refers to actual beliefs, customs, principles, and practices of people Copyright Cengage Learning.

Second, moral philosophy—also called ethical theory—refers to the systematic effort to understand moral concepts and justify moral principles and theories. It seeks to establish principles of right behavior that may serve as action guides for individuals and groups. Third, applied ethics deals with controversial moral problems such as abortion, premarital sex, capital punishment, euthanasia, and civil disobedience. The larger study of ethics, then, draws on all three of these subdivisions, connecting them in important ways.

For example, moral philosophy is very much interrelated with applied ethics: Theory without application is sterile and useless, but action without a theoretical perspective is blind. There will be an enormous difference in the quality of debates about abortion, for example, when those discussions are informed by ethical theory as compared to when they are not.

More light and less heat will be the likely outcome. With the onset of multiculturalism and the deep differences in worldviews around the globe today, the need to use reason, rather than violence, to settle our disputes and resolve conflicts of interest has become obvious. Ethical awareness is the necessary condition for human survival and flourishing.

If we are to endure as a free, civilized people, we must take ethics more seriously than we have before. Ethical theory may rid us of simplistic extremism and emotionalism—where shouting matches replace arguments. Ethical theory clarifies relevant concepts, constructs and evaluates arguments, and guides us on how to live our lives.

It is important that the educated person be able to discuss ethical situations with precision and subtlety. The study of ethics is not only of instrumental value but also valuable in its own right. It is satisfying to have knowledge of important matters for its own sake, and it is important to understand the nature and scope of moral theory for its own sake.

We are rational beings who cannot help but want to understand the nature of the good life and all that it implies. The study of ethics is sometimes a bit off-putting because so many differing theories often appear to contradict each other and thus produce confusion rather than guidance. But an appreciation of the complexity of ethics is valuable in offsetting our natural tendency toward inflexibility and tribalism where we stubbornly adhere to the values of our specific peer groups.

How should I live my life? What is the right thing to do in this situation? Is premarital sex morally permissible? Ought a Copyright Cengage Learning. Morality has a distinct action-guiding, or normative, aspect, which it shares with other practices such as religion, law, and etiquette. Religion Consider first the relation between morality and religion. But neither the practices nor principles of morality should be identified with religion.

The practice of morality need not be motivated by religious considerations, and moral principles need not be grounded in revelation or divine authority—as religious teachings invariably are. The most important characteristic of ethics is its grounding in reason and human experience.

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Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong , Seventh Edition

Shelves: ethics I gave this book 5 stars because it achieves what it sets out to achieve better than any other book that purports to do the same - provide an introduction to ethics. Pojman is well known for putting together many anthologies on disparate branches of philosophical inquiry. Ethics was his specialty he did his Ph. If Pojman read the many articles he selected to I gave this book 5 stars because it achieves what it sets out to achieve better than any other book that purports to do the same - provide an introduction to ethics. If Pojman read the many articles he selected to be part of his anthologies, this would then put him in a good position to write an introduction to the subject. Pojman covers much ground in his little book. Not only does he discuss many major ethical theories, viz.

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Ethics : discovering right and wrong

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