EUCHEUMA SPINOSUM PDF

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The success of these farms resulted in the introduction of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma to more than 25 countries, but many of them ceased farming at an experimental stage. Cultivation methods Cultivation of eucheumoid algae is really simple under the right conditions.

It is based on vegetative propagation. There are several cultivation methods: off-bottom, rafts, and long-lines. The off-bottom method uses stakes, which hold the ropes with the propagules attached, and must be done in shallow and clean water.

Rafts are frequently used in deeper waters but require boats to go to the farms. The structure to keep the ropes inside the water is provided by rafts, made from bamboo, wood or PVC pipe, instead of stakes.

Long-lines can be used as in off-bottom, as in the raft methods, and is a more intensive cultivation process. It is recommended when large areas are being used. This last methodology has been very effective in Brazilian cultivation.

Harvesting and processing Production cycles vary from 30 to 60 days, depending on the farming region and method. Figure 3: "Line stripper" used for Kappaphycus alvarezii harvesting. After harvesting, the seaweeds are washed several times with seawater to remove sediments, and sun-dried Fig. Dried seaweed is normally bailed to facilitate the transportation, and even the exportation.

Seaweed farmers can sell the collected biomass to stackers, or the bales directly to traders who will forward the production to exporters and international processors. Farmers can be organized in cooperatives, and these can facilitate the relationship between them and the traders.

Carrageenan extraction procedures There are two main kinds of carrageenan extracts, different according to the extraction methodology employed: semi-refined and refined carrageenan. In semi-refined carrageenan extraction, clean seaweed is cooked in an alkali solution to improve the gel strength, and then washed several times and laid out to dry in the sun. Later, the alkali-treated material is ground and sold as seaweed flour.

This process is much shorter and cheaper than refined carrageenan process. However, semi-refined carrageenan has different applications than the refined carrageenan: it is usually used for canning meat and for pet food, and products in which the presence of coloring does not matter. Refined carrageenan is obtained after a pre-treatment with alkali solution, followed by cooking in water.

The seaweed residue is removed by filtration and the carrageenan is recovered from the solution by precipitation with isopropyl alcohol, or by repeatedly freezing and thawing the gel until water is totally eliminated from the carrageenan fibers. The fibers are then dried and ground in the same way of semi-refined carrageenan. Introduction of exotic species Eucheumoid seaweeds are commercially important, and their success stimulated the introduction to many countries.

However, in some places, introduced species became a problem, such as in India and Hawaii, where the species began to overgrow coral reefs, and in the Phillipines, Malaysia and India, where epiphyte outbreaks induced loss of entire crops see Ask et al.

Normally, compared to other aquaculture activities, seaweed farming is one of the lest environmentally-impactating activities, but care must be taken to avoid future difficulties, particularly when dealing with introduced species.

Selection of adequate sites, environmental monitoring mainly related with the bio-dispersion , and quarantine protocols must be made to guarantee the success of the activity. Clare on the west coast of Ireland. Connemara Organic Seaweed Company provide hand harvested, sustainable, kelp and seaweed products for human consumption through health supplements and edible products. This is Seaweed. Emerald Isle Organic Irish Seaweed. A family business producing seaweed as supplements, cooking, gardening and bath products.

Irish Seaweeds Ltd. Seaweed courses , cookery courses, and much more in Co.

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The Seaweed Site: information on marine algae

The success of these farms resulted in the introduction of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma to more than 25 countries, but many of them ceased farming at an experimental stage. Cultivation methods Cultivation of eucheumoid algae is really simple under the right conditions. It is based on vegetative propagation. There are several cultivation methods: off-bottom, rafts, and long-lines. The off-bottom method uses stakes, which hold the ropes with the propagules attached, and must be done in shallow and clean water. Rafts are frequently used in deeper waters but require boats to go to the farms. The structure to keep the ropes inside the water is provided by rafts, made from bamboo, wood or PVC pipe, instead of stakes.

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Eucheuma farming, Tanzania Eucheuma are naturally found within the range of 20 degrees either side of the Equator in the Indo-Pacific region from eastern Africa to Guam , and are most concentrated in Southeast Asia. Eucheuma are typically found below the low tide mark to the upper subtidal zone of a reef, growing on sand to rocky seafloor areas along a coral reef, where water movement is slow to moderate. They also show a triphasic life cycle, consisting of a gametophyte n dioecious , carposporophyte 2n , and the sporophyte 2n. Both the gametophyte and the more robust sporophyte stage are significant to the development of the seaweed, where their characteristics allow for increased vegetative regeneration. As Eucheuma are some of the most common and fastest growing species of seaweeds, their commercial aspects are visible by large quantities grown and harvested over short periods of time, possessing the ability to reach ten times their mass in some 45 to 60 days in warm tropical settings.

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