In , Har Gobind Khorana was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his excellent work on the interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis. This award made him famous in all over the world. He had three elder brothers and one sister. His family was poor but his father insisted on providing him a good education.
|Published (Last):||11 September 2017|
|PDF File Size:||19.79 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||5.40 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Nirenberg and Robert W. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in and received the National Medal of Science in In addition to developing methods for investigating the structure of the nucleic acids, Khorana introduced many of the techniques that allowed scientists to decipher the genetic code and show how ribonucleic acid RNA can specify the structure of proteins. Four years after winning the Nobel Prize, Khorana succeeded in synthesizing the first wholly artificial gene.
In the s Khorana synthesized the gene for rhodopsin, a protein involved in vision. From the boy who started his primary education studying from a village teacher under a tree to a world-renowned biochemist, his life was one long eventful journey. Even though born to poor parents, his family was very keen that their boy gets a good education. Khorana was always a good student and it was no surprise when he won a scholarship to study chemistry at the Punjab University.
He shone brilliantly in his studies and was soon off to the University of Liverpool to pursue higher education, again on a scholarship from the Government of India. His interest lay in human genetics and he began experimenting on nucleic acids found in RNA. For his discoveries in the field of DNA which carry the genetic code of all living beings, he jointly won the Nobel Prize for Medicine with Marshall W. Holley in By now he had become a citizen of the US and was continually uncovering newer information about human genetics.
His birth date was recorded as January 9, , but the exact date of his birth is uncertain. He had three elder brothers and one sister. His family was poor but his father insisted on providing him a good education. Early on he went to a local school where he was educated under a tree by a village teacher; his father also taught him at home.
His family was, in fact, the only literate one in the whole village. Khorana attended D. High School in Multan now West Punjab. A brilliant student, he was awarded a scholarship by the Government of India to study at the University of Liverpool. Khorana went to England where he worked for a Ph. It was the first time he had traveled outside India and this experience was his introduction to Western culture.
He earned his Ph. Khorana continued his postdoctoral studies in Zurich at the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule with Professor Vladimir Prelog, who had a major influence on his life-long approach to science.
The couple had three children. Unfortunately one of their daughters died in Career and Works During a brief period in , Har Gobind Khorana was unable to find a job in his original home area in Punjab.
Todd on peptides and nucleotides. He stayed in Cambridge from until He received a job offer from Dr. He accepted even though the British Columbia Research Council did not offer many facilities for research.
Shrum was a very inspiring man and Khorana could engage in whatever research he wanted to conduct under him. Along with a group of other researchers, he began to work in the field of phosphate esters and nucleic acids. In , Khorana and Todd published their only coauthored paper; it described the use of a novel phosphorylating reagent. Khorana found that this reagent was very useful in overcoming problems in the synthesis of polynucleotides.
Between and , Khorana and his coworkers established the fundamental techniques of nucleotide chemistry. Their goal was to develop purely chemical methods of synthesizing oligonucleotides long chains of nucleotides.
These discoveries revolutionized nucleic acid research and made it possible to elucidate the genetic code. Khorana and his coworkers synthesized each of the 64 possible triplets codons by synthesizing polynucleotides of known composition.
Khorana also devised the methods that led to the synthesis of large, well-defined nucleic acids. During the s he delved deeper into his experiments in nucleic acids found in RNA, a chemical that translates the genetic information contained in DNA. In , Khorana synthesized Coenzyme A, a factor needed for the activity of certain key metabolic enzymes. He showed that the genetic code consisted of 64 distinct three-letter words. Khorana became a professor of biochemistry in and was named Conrad A.
During his tenure at this University, he completed the work that led to sharing the Nobel prize. Using these enzymes, he was able to produce proteins. The amino acid sequences of these proteins then solved the rest of the puzzle.
He proved that the nucleotide code is transmitted in groups of three called codons to the cells. Some codons are responsible for signaling to the cells to start or stop the manufacture of proteins. Once the genetic code had been elucidated, Khorana focused on gene structure-gene function relationships and studies of DNA-protein interactions.
In order to understand gene expression, Khorana turned to DNA synthesis and sequencing. In , when Khorana announced the total synthesis of the first wholly artificial gene, his achievement was honored as a major landmark in molecular biology. Six years later, Khorana and his associates synthesized another gene. In the s, Khorana carried out studies of the chemistry and molecular biology of the gene for rhodopsin, a protein involved in vision.
Khorana was successful in constructing the first ever artificial gene in A few years later he made the artificial gene function in a bacteria cell.
Genetic engineering has been made possible only due to the ability to synthesize DNA. During his later years, he experimented on the molecular mechanisms underlying the cell signaling pathways of vision in vertebrates.
He primarily studied the structure and function of rhodopsin, a light-sensitive protein found in the eye.
He brought the power of chemical synthesis to bear on deciphering the genetic code, relying on different combinations of trinucleotides. Holley, and Marshall W. His wife, Esther, and daughter, Emily Anne, had died earlier, but Khorana was survived by his other two children. Julia later wrote about his work as a professor. He was the first person to demonstrate the role of nucleotides in protein synthesis.
Khorana was known for a modest, ingratiating manner. The mission of the Khorana Program is to build a seamless community of scientists, industrialists, and social entrepreneurs in the United States and India. On 9 January , a Google Doodle celebrated the achievements of Har Gobind Khorana on what would have been his 96th birthday.
Nirenberg and Robert W. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in and received the National Medal of Science in In addition to developing methods for investigating the structure of the nucleic acids, Khorana introduced many of the techniques that allowed scientists to decipher the genetic code and show how ribonucleic acid RNA can specify the structure of proteins. Four years after winning the Nobel Prize, Khorana succeeded in synthesizing the first wholly artificial gene. In the s Khorana synthesized the gene for rhodopsin, a protein involved in vision.
Khorana, Har Gobind (1922- )
Nirenberg and Robert W. Khorana was born into a poor family and attended the University of the Punjab at Lahore, India now in Pakistan , and the University of Liverpool, England, on government scholarships. He obtained his Ph. He began research on nucleic acids during a fellowship at the University of Cambridge under Sir Alexander Todd. In Khorana became a naturalized citizen of the United States, and in he joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology , where he remained until he retired in Har Gobind Khorana.
Assignment Point - Solution for Best Assignment Paper
Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia. However, the date of retrieval is often important. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Khorana was the youngest of five children of Ganpat Rai Khorana, a tax collector for the British colonial government, and a Krishna Devi Khorana, a homemaker.
डॉ. हरगोविंद खुराना की जीवनी | Dr Hargovind Khorana Biography in Hindi
His father was a patwari , a village agricultural taxation clerk in the British Indian government. In his autobiography, Khorana wrote this summary: "Although poor, my father was dedicated to educating his children and we were practically the only literate family in the village inhabited by about people. He received his PhD in advised by Roger J. Todd on peptides and nucleotides.