It was overly charged with the task of reviewing the national education and training for the next decade and beyond and makes recommendations there too. It started its work in January under the chairmanship of Mr. James M. Kamunge thus the name the Kamunge commission. In , the system of education was implemented. Though this system had very good objectives, its implementation was haphazardly done leading to a number of changes for example abrupt changes in the curriculum which did not allow the teaching fraternity and the learner to adjust, heavy work load and the introduction of technical or vocational oriented subjects.
|Published (Last):||1 November 2005|
|PDF File Size:||13.26 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||4.65 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Elaine N. Mukuru Secretary Kamunge Commission Recommendations The team recommended in-service courses for school inspectors, who would also be required to upgrade their academic and professional qualifications.
It recommended payment of full boarding and feeding fees for students in public schools, training institutes and universities. The team proposed compulsory primary education and called for the abolishing of categorization of schools as high and low cost.
Secondary schools developed and equipped by the Government and with teachers paid from public funds were to be designated as public schools. Untrained primary teachers were to get in-service training. The Kamunge Commission wanted Bachelor of Education programs in universities to take five years, growth in university standard enrolment be matched with the educational resources and the development of public universities be coordinated and harmonized. A major impact of the implementation of the Kamunge Commission report was the rise in the cost of education for parents and guardians, resulting in high dropout rates and persistent repetition of classes.
Enrolment, however, dropped by 1. By then the gains that were realized, with the introduction of the Second Free Primary Education were steadily eroded with introduction of the system of education. Whereas , pupils had enrolled in Standard 1 in , only , sat the KCPE in , a dropout of about 60 percent of the initial enrolment. Dropout rates were highest in the lower primary, while repetition rates were recorded in upper primary classes.
The average transition rate from Standard 7 to Standard 8 from was 70 percent. However, the number of primary schools increased from 11, in to 15, in , while the number of primary teachers colleges rose from 17 to 25 during the same period.
The two groups were considered for university entry in Enrolment in secondary schools climbed from , students in to , in The number of secondary schools also increased from 2, in to 2, in However, in , the Government took a bold decision to integrate all Harambee secondary schools into the national public secondary education system.
The Government decreed in that all unaided Harambee schools were eligible to receive government assistance. But the most important development was the integration of Harambee schools into the public secondary school education system with government support in the form of teachers and regular supervision. In the attack that caused national and international outrage, more than 70 girls were raped after declining to participate in a strike organized by the boys.
The school was temporarily closed and has since been renamed St Cyprian Secondary School. Kamunge Commission — Technical and vocational education Vocational education was institutionalized in the curriculum with the introduction of the system of education. Whereas several pre-vocational subjects were introduced in primary education, a raft of vocational and pre-technical subjects were introduced in secondary schools, such as agriculture, business studies, computer studies, home science and industrial education building and construction, electricity metalwork, drawing and design, power mechanics, woodwork and aviation technology.
The objective was to prepare high school graduates for the world of work and provide a foundation for further training in relevant post-secondary training institutions. By the early s, demands for the review of the system of education, and more so its pre-vocational component in primary schools, increased. The main complaint was that the need for home science classrooms and workshops increased the cost of education. Further, few teachers were ready or trained to teach vocational skills.
Subsequently, most schools have dropped the vocational subjects, which are offered as options. Kamunge Commission — Post-secondary technical education Although there were problems in vocational education offered in primary and secondary schools, enrolment in post-secondary technical institutions remained stable.
By , the three national polytechnics, Kenya Polytechnic, Eldoret Polytechnic, and Mombasa Polytechnic, had 9, students in various fields. The 18 technical institutes also had a total of 7, students, while the 17 institutes of technology had a combined enrolment of 5, students. Mackay to prepared etailed plans of a new university in the country. Although the committee finished its work the same year and came up with a blueprint of a new university, it was not until that Moi University was set up.
Consequently, the inauguration of Moi University took place on December 6, The first 85 students of the university were accommodated at Kaptagat Hotel Where they stayed in tents pitched at the lawn of the hotel.
Thereafter, tremendous development took place in terms of construction of physical facilities, student enrolment, staff recruitment and development of academic programs. The history of Kenyatta University began in when the British government handed over the Templar Military Barracks to the newly independent government of Kenya.
The barracks were then changed into a college known as Kenyatta College to offer secondary education and teacher education. However, in , the college was elevated to a constituent college of the University of Nairobi, following an Act of Parliament and renamed Kenyatta University College. Subsequently, in , the Faculty of Education was moved from the University of Nairobi to Kenyatta, becoming the only institution training teachers for both under-graduate and postgraduate levels in the country.
Kamunge Commission — Egerton University In , the Government elevated Egerton Agricultural College into a constituent college of the University of Nairobi with the express mandate to offer degrees in agricultural sciences and home economics.
Soon afterward, the college opened its doors to people of all races in Kenya and other African countries. In , the college was recognized as a chartered public university under the name of Egerton University.
Cost-sharing in public universities from independence in until mids, public higher education in Kenya was offered free to the students as in most other countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In return, graduates were bonded to Work in the public sector for a minimum of three years.
But many students and their parents continued to regard university education as free leading to the prevailing low recovery of these loans. But in , the Government introduced an enhanced cost-sharing scheme that required students to pay in full or in part through a direct charge depending on their need for tuition, food, and accommodation.
Under the new policy, they were required to cover both modest tuition fees and contribute to the costs of maintenance. The introduction of direct charges was a Wake-up call that in the context of growing enrolments and diminished funding, the Government could no longer finance university education without compromising academic standards.
The introduced mode of cost-sharing in public university education Was part of the Structural Adjustment Programmes prescribed by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The causes were also rooted in disappointment and distrust between the Government and students.
Declining national resources occasioned by the economic meltdown of the time as well as bulging enrolments had put the Government under intense pressure and it was unable to provide a high standard of living as that that was enjoyed by students and staff during the first and even the second decades of independence. According to Prof Everett Standa, the chairman of the Vice-Chancellors Committee on Causes of Disturbances and Riots in Public Universities, inadequate funding to meet the physical needs of the students, poor food and overcrowded hostels played a major in the chain of events that led to closures in the s.
As already pointed out, the debt crisis of the decade led to the Structural Adjustment Programmes of the World Bank that were presented as conditionalities to be adhered to if the Government was to be put on the list of aid beneficiaries.
During the entire period, universities operate on a stringent budget and students and staff became more militant. The problem was intensified by a lack of learning resources such as books, journals and laboratory equipment became chronic. Kamunge Commission — During the first two decades of independence, the Kenyan state was characterized generally by uncontrolled expansion of formal education at all levels.
During that period, the Government introduced two regimes of free primary education. The Government had reacted to public demands made on education and supported local Harambee initiatives. This was a period that the Government showed commitment to providing educational opportunities to all children and in perspective, the state was able to expand schooling and to promote its legitimacy as being a modern and compassionate nation.
Nevertheless, economic decline led to a severe shortage of resources to the extent that the Government could no longer afford to subsidize the coast of secondary schooling for students in public secondary schools. The result was an erosion of the quality of education in secondary schools as the government called for greater cost-sharing in education. Subsequently, school committees such as Boards of Governors BoG and Parents and Teachers Associations PTAs were empowered to collect school fees and often disregarded minimum school fees structure from the Ministry of Education.
As a result some of the better public schools became exclusive province of students whose parents who could afford to pay high fees. Most of students from poor economic households who could not afford the fees in those schools had to seek placement in lower quality schools. In a nutshell, the fourth decade of independence was characterized by serious distortions in education than any other period since independence.
According to educational researchers at the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis, high dropout rates and repetition rates reversed the gains that had been achieved in previous years. There are indicators that in the larger period of the fourth decade the Government was unable to develop educational policies to improve quality or combat declines in enrolment rates, dropout — rates and depletion rates.
However, it was during this period that gender gap in enrolment levels narrowed considerably. It was also during this period that private participation in primary education increased to sizeable levels. But most significant, it is during this period that the Government introduced the Third Free Primary Education Initiative in Consequently, enrolment rose by Kamunge Commission — Educational policies The expansion of educational opportunities has been the primary objective of the Government since the attainment of independence.
However, from the early s, enrolment declines were observed and many stakeholders faulted the system of education, which was blamed of re-introducing a colonial-like system of education that encouraged social stratification inequalities.
Launched in , the 4 system emphasized vocational subjects and it was assumed that it would enable school dropouts at all levels to be self-employed or to obtain employment in the informal.
In order to address some of those concerns, in , the Government carried an internal audit through the Master Plan on Education and Training, and Commission of Inquiry into the Education System of Kenya of , popularly known as the Koech Commission.
Master Plan on Education and Training Master Plan on Education and Training was an internal audit that was carried by the Ministry of Education to try and introduce reforms in the system of education. Subsequently, the panel that carried the audit highlighted the role of education as that of addressing issues beyond the provision of vocational skills but to include aspects of mental, attitudinal and social abilities.
They noted that the development of education in the next decade and beyond should be engaged in expanding access, raising completion rates, retention, and raising relevance and quality at all levels. The panel called for downsizing the curriculum by making it more manageable, affordable and related to the needs of the learner.
It was also recommended that pressure be reduced on household expenditure on education by increasing public financing on primary and secondary education. Noting that the education system was riddled With limited access,gender disparities, high drop out rates, and poor academic achievement, the panel issued five policy guidelines: Decentralizing the planning, financing, and management of secondary education to local government authorities, boards of governors and other school committees.
Increasing education and training opportunities for the youth. Raising the transition rate of primary school leavers to secondary education to 70 percent in and by percent in Raising the relevance and quality of education in all secondary schools so as to increase equity with regard to achievement. Increasing efficiency in resource mobilization, allocation, and utilization. If you believe that any information in this article is Incorrect, Incomplete, Plagiarised, violates your Copyright right or you want to propose an update, please send us an email to informationcradle gmail.
Provide as much information as you can and we promise to take corrective measures to the best of our abilities. Famous Secondary Schools in Kenya.
KAMUNGE REPORT PDF
Vicage To contact the copyright holder directly for corrections — or for permission to reportt or make other authorized use of this material, click here. But most significant, it is during this period that the Government introduced the Third Free Primary Education Initiative in Mackay to prepared etailed plans of a new university in the country. See What Everyone is Watching. The first anomaly in the task-force is its lack of broad repor. Kamunge Commission — Egerton University Inthe Government elevated Egerton Agricultural College into a constituent college of the University of Nairobi with the express mandate to offer degrees in agricultural sciences and home economics. Kamunge Commission Report and Recommendations Subsequently, most schools have dropped the vocational subjects,which are offered as options.
Kamunge Commission Report and Recommendations
Terisar Your email address will not be published. Mr Kamunge is a seasoned educationist and accomplished administrator, who has spent almost all his adult life in education management, crowning his achievements at the World Bank, kamunfe he was an education consultant. Vocational education was institutionalized in the curriculum with introduction of the system of eeport. Whereas several pre-vocational subjects were introduced in primary education, a raft of vocational and pre-technical subjects were introduced in secondary schools, such as agriculture, business studies, computer studies, home science and industrial education building and construction, electricity metalwork, drawing and design, power mechanics, woodwork and aviation technology.